Pulmonary Function Testing
Pulmonary function testing measures how well you are breathing. There are different types of breathing tests that can be done during pulmonary function testing. They include spirometry, lung volumes and diffusing capacity. Spirometry can show how much air you can breathe in and out. It also shows how fast you can breathe in and out. Lung volumes can provide further information about how your lungs are functioning. Diffusing capacity can show how well your lungs move oxygen from the lungs to the blood. The results of pulmonary function testing can help your doctor find the best treatment plan for you.
Bronchoscopy is a test to view the airways and diagnose lung disease. It may also be used during the treatment of some lung conditions. A bronchoscope is device used to see the lungs. It can be flexible or rigid. Usually, a flexible bronchoscope is used. The flexible bronchoscope is a tube less than 1/2 inch wide and about 2 feet long.The scope is passed through your mouth or nose, and then into your lungs. Going through the nose is a good way to look at the upper airways. The mouth method allows the doctor to use a larger bronchoscope. A rigid bronchoscope requires general anesthesia. You will be asleep. If a flexible bronchoscope is used, you will be awake. The doctor will spray a numbing drug (anesthetic) in your mouth and throat. This will cause coughing at first, which will stop as the anesthetic begins to work. When the area feels thick, it is sufficiently numb. Medications may be given through an IV to help you relax. If the bronchoscopy is done through the nose, numbing jelly will be place into one nostril.Once you are numb, the tube will be inserted into the lungs. Then, the doctor sends saline solution through the tube. This flushes the lungs and allows the doctor to collect samples of lung cells, fluids, and other materials inside the air sacs. This part of the procedure is called a lavage. Sometimes, tiny brushes, needles, or forceps may be passed through the bronchoscope and used to take tissue samples (biopsies) from your lungs. A doctor can also place a stent in the airway or view the lungs with ultrasound during a bronchoscopy.
A chest x-ray is an x-ray of the lungs, heart, large arteries, ribs, and diaphragm.The test is performed in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. Two views are usually taken: one in which the x-rays pass through the chest from the back (posterior-anterior view), and one in which the x-rays pass through the chest from one side to the other (lateral view). You stand in front of the machine and must hold your breath when the x-ray is taken.
Arterial Blood Gases Interpretation
Blood gases are a test done to measure how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in your blood. It also looks at the acidity (pH) of the blood. Usually, blood gases look at blood from an artery. In rarer cases, blood from a vein may be used. The test is performed using a small needle to collect a sample of blood from an artery. The sample may be collected from the radial artery in the wrist, the femoral artery in the groin, or the brachial artery in the arm.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive, usually painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor or printed. MRI doesnot use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to better evaluate parts of the body and certain diseases that may not be assessed adequately with other imaging methods such as x-ray, ultrasound or computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scanning).
A computerized axial tomography scan is more commonly known by its abbreviated name, CT scan or CAT scan. It is an x-ray procedure which combines many x-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional views and, if needed, three-dimensional images of the internal organs and structures of the body. A CT scan is used to define normal and abnormal structures in the body and/or assist in procedures by helping to accurately guide the placement of instruments or treatments. A large donut-shaped x-ray machine takes x-ray images at many different angles around the body. These images are processed by a computer to produce cross-sectional pictures of the body. In each of these pictures the body is seen as an x-ray "slice" of the body, which is recorded on a film. This recorded image is called a tomogram. "Computerized Axial Tomography" refers to the recorded tomogram "sections" at different levels of the body.
A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a unique type of imaging test that helps doctors see how the organs and tissues inside your body are actually functioning.
The test involves injecting a very small dose of a radioactive chemical, called a radiotracer, into the vein of your arm. The tracer travels through the body and is absorbed by the organs and tissues being studied. Next, you will be asked to lie down on a flat examination table that is moved into the center of a PET scanner—a doughnut-like shaped machine. This machine detects and records the energy given off by the tracer substance and, with the aid of a computer, this energy is converted into three-dimensional pictures. A physician can then look at cross-sectional images of the body organ from any angle in order to detect any functional problems.
A sleep study is a 7-8 hour recording of physical changes that occur while you sleep. Your brain activity, heart rate, leg movements, oxygen levels, and breathing are tracked during this test. A sleep study is used to check for sleep disorders. A common sleep disorder is obstructive sleep apnea.
If your study shows that you have a sleep disorder, you will be scheduled to come back for a second night. The second night study will be done to find the best treatment for you.
Management of Respiratory Disease
Acute and Chronic
Management of Ventilators
Management of Intensive Care Patients